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dc.contributor.authorOrt, Christoph
dc.contributor.authorVan Nuijs, Alexander L. N.
dc.contributor.authorBerset, Jean-Daniel
dc.contributor.authorBijlsma, Lubertus
dc.contributor.authorCastiglioni, Sara
dc.contributor.authorCovaci, Adrian
dc.contributor.authorde Voogt, Pim
dc.contributor.authorEmke, Erik
dc.contributor.authorFatta-Kassinos, Despo
dc.contributor.authorGriffiths, Paul
dc.contributor.authorHernández Hernández, Félix
dc.contributor.authorGonzález Mariño, Iria
dc.contributor.authorGrabic, Roman
dc.contributor.authorKasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorMastroianni, Nicola
dc.contributor.authorMeierjohann, Axel
dc.contributor.authorNefau, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorÖstman, Marcus
dc.contributor.authorPicó Gracia, Yolanda
dc.contributor.authorRacamonde, Inés
dc.contributor.authorReid, Malcolm
dc.contributor.authorSlobodnik, Jaroslav
dc.contributor.authorTerzic, Senka
dc.contributor.authorThomaidis, Nikolaos
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Kevin V.
dc.date.accessioned2015-06-10T11:29:47Z
dc.date.available2015-06-10T11:29:47Z
dc.date.issued2014-08
dc.identifier.citationORT, Christoph...[et al.]. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. Addiction, Volume 109, Issue 8 (August 2014), pp. 1338-1352ca_CA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10234/123012
dc.description.abstractAims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total popula- tion 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, metham- phetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10 −3 ), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist.ca_CA
dc.format.extent15 p.ca_CA
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfca_CA
dc.language.isoengca_CA
dc.publisherWileyca_CA
dc.relation.isPartOfAddiction, Volume 109, Issue 8 (August 2014)ca_CA
dc.subjectAmphetamineca_CA
dc.subjectCannabisca_CA
dc.subjectCocaineca_CA
dc.subjectEcstasyca_CA
dc.subjectMethamphetamineca_CA
dc.subjectSewageca_CA
dc.subjectDrugs of abuseca_CA
dc.titleSpatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysisca_CA
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/articleca_CA
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12570
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessca_CA
dc.relation.publisherVersionhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12570/fullca_CA


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