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dc.contributor.authorFortes Marco, Lluís
dc.contributor.authorLanuza, Enrique
dc.contributor.authorMartínez-García, Fernando
dc.descriptionSpecial Issue: Olfaction and Neuroscience From the Nose to the Brainca_CA
dc.description.abstractSome chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation.ca_CA
dc.format.extent17 p.ca_CA
dc.relation.isPartOfThe Anatomical Record, v. 296, n. 9, p. 1346–1363ca_CA
dc.rightsCopyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.ca_CA
dc.subjectolfactory receptorsca_CA
dc.subjectvomeronasal receptorsca_CA
dc.subjectsocio-sexual behaviorca_CA
dc.subjectdefensive behaviorca_CA
dc.titleOf Pheromones and Kairomones: What Receptors Mediate Innate Emotional Responses?ca_CA

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